Antiviral Potential of Fucoxanthin, an Edible Carotenoid Purified from Sargassum siliquastrum, against Zika Virus

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Mar Drugs. 2024 May 28;22(6):247. doi: 10.3390/md22060247.

ABSTRACT

Considering the lack of antiviral drugs worldwide, we investigated the antiviral potential of fucoxanthin, an edible carotenoid purified from Sargassum siliquastrum, against zika virus (ZIKV) infection. The antiviral activity of fucoxanthin was assessed in ZIKV-infected Vero E6 cells, and the relevant structural characteristics were confirmed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Fucoxanthin decreased the infectious viral particles and nonstructural protein (NS)1 mRNA expression levels at concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 ┬ÁM in ZIKV-infected cells. Fucoxanthin also decreased the increased mRNA levels of interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeat 1 and 2 in ZIKV-infected cells. Molecular docking simulations revealed that fucoxanthin binds to three main ZIKV proteins, including the envelope protein, NS3, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), with binding energies of -151.449, -303.478, and -290.919 kcal/mol, respectively. The complex of fucoxanthin with RdRp was more stable than RdRp protein alone based on MD simulation. Further, fucoxanthin bonded to the three proteins via repeated formation and disappearance of hydrogen bonds. Overall, fucoxanthin exerts antiviral potential against ZIKV by affecting its three main proteins in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, fucoxanthin isolated from S. siliquastrum is a potential candidate for treating zika virus infections.

PMID:38921558 | DOI:10.3390/md22060247