Artesunate attenuates the tumorigenesis of choroidal melanoma via inhibiting EFNA3 through Stat3/Akt signaling pathway

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J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2024 Apr 17;150(4):202. doi: 10.1007/s00432-024-05711-8.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Choroidal melanoma (CM), a kind of malignant tumor, is the main type of Uveal melanoma and one half of CM patients develop metastases. As a member of Eph/ephrin pathway that plays vital role in tumors, EphrinA3 (EFNA3) has been proved to promote tumorigenesis in many tumors. But the effect of EFNA3 in CM has not been studied yet. Through inhibiting angiogenesis, inducing apoptosis and autophagy and so on, Artesunate (ART) plays a key anti-tumor role in many tumors, including CM. However, the exact mechanisms of anti-tumor in CM remain unclear.

METHODS: The UALCAN and TIMER v2.0 database analyzed the role of EFNA3 in CM patients. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot were used to detect the expression of EFNA3 in CM. The growth ability of CM was tested by clonogenic assay and Cell counting kit-8 assay, and the migration ability using Transwell assay.

RESULTS: Our results found EFNA3 boosted CM cells’ growth and migration through activating Stat3/Akt signaling pathway, while ART inhibited the tumor promoting effect of CM via downregulating EFNA3. In xenograft tumor model, EFNA3 knockdown and ART significantly inhibited tumor growth.

CONCLUSION: EFNA3 could be a valuable prognostic factor in CM.

PMID:38630320 | DOI:10.1007/s00432-024-05711-8