Assessment of the in vitro acaricidal activity of Bravecto® (fluralaner) and a proposed orange oil-based formulation vehicle for the treatment of Sarcoptes scabiei

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Parasit Vectors. 2024 Apr 25;17(1):194. doi: 10.1186/s13071-024-06275-9.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sarcoptic mange is a serious animal welfare concern in bare-nosed wombats (Vombatus ursinus). Fluralaner (Bravecto®) is a novel acaricide that has recently been utilised for treating mange in wombats. The topical ‘spot-on’ formulation of fluralaner can limit treatment delivery options in situ, but dilution to a volume for ‘pour-on’ delivery is one practicable solution. This study investigated the in vitro acaricidal activity of Bravecto, a proposed essential oil-based diluent (Orange Power®), and two of its active constituents, limonene and citral, against Sarcoptes scabiei.

METHODS: Sarcoptes scabiei were sourced from experimentally infested pigs. In vitro assays were performed to determine the lethal concentration (LC50) and survival time of the mites when exposed to varying concentrations of the test solutions.

RESULTS: All compounds were highly effective at killing mites in vitro. The LC50 values of Bravecto, Orange Power, limonene and citral at 1 h were 14.61 mg/ml, 4.50%, 26.53% and 0.76%, respectively. The median survival times of mites exposed to undiluted Bravecto, Orange Power and their combination were 15, 5 and 10 min, respectively. A pilot survival assay of mites collected from a mange-affected wombat showed survival times of < 10 min when exposed to Bravecto and Orange Power and 20 min when exposed to moxidectin.

CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the acaricidal properties of Bravecto, demonstrate acaricidal properties of Orange Power and support the potential suitability of Orange Power and its active constituents as a diluent for Bravecto. As well as killing mites via direct exposure, Orange Power could potentially enhance the topical delivery of Bravecto to wombats by increasing drug penetration in hyperkeratotic crusts. Further research evaluating the physiochemical properties and modes of action of Orange Power and its constituents as a formulation vehicle would be of value.

PMID:38664829 | DOI:10.1186/s13071-024-06275-9