Astragaloside IV alleviates renal fibrosis by inhibiting renal tubular epithelial cell pyroptosis induced by urotensin II through regulating the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway

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PLoS One. 2024 May 31;19(5):e0304365. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0304365. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the molecular mechanism of Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) in alleviating renal fibrosis by inhibiting Urotensin II-induced pyroptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of renal tubular epithelial cells.

METHODS: Forty SD rats were randomly divided into control group without operation: gavage with 5ml/kg/d water for injection and UUO model group: gavage with 5ml/kg/d water for injection; UUO+ AS-IV group (gavage with AS-IV 20mg/kg/d; and UUO+ losartan potassium group (gavage with losartan potassium 10.3mg/kg/d, with 10 rats in each group. After 2 weeks, Kidney pathology, serum Urotensin II, and cAMP concentration were detected, and the expressions of NLRP3, GSDMD-N, Caspase-1, and IL-1β were detected by immunohistochemistry. Rat renal tubular epithelial cells were cultured in vitro, and different concentrations of Urotensin II were used to intervene for 24h and 48h. Cell proliferation activity was detected using the CCK8 assay. Suitable concentrations of Urotensin II and intervention time were selected, and Urotensin II receptor antagonist (SB-611812), inhibitor of PKA(H-89), and AS-IV (15ug/ml) were simultaneously administered. After 24 hours, cells and cell supernatants from each group were collected. The cAMP concentration was detected using the ELISA kit, and the expression of PKA, α-SMA, FN, IL-1β, NLRP3, GSDMD-N, and Caspase-1 was detected using cell immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and RT-PCR.

RESULTS: Renal tissue of UUO rats showed renal interstitial infiltration, tubule dilation and atrophy, renal interstitial collagen fiber hyperplasia, and serum Urotensin II and cAMP concentrations were significantly higher than those in the sham operation group (p <0.05). AS-IV and losartan potassium intervention could alleviate renal pathological changes, and decrease serum Urotensin II, cAMP concentration levels, and the expressions of NLRP3, GSDMD-N, Caspase-1, and IL-1β in renal tissues (p <0.05). Urotensin II at a concentration of 10-8 mol/L could lead to the decrease of cell proliferation, (p<0.05). Compared with the normal group, the cAMP level and the PKA expression were significantly increased (p<0.05). After intervention with AS-IV and Urotensin II receptor antagonist, the cAMP level and the expression of PKA were remarkably decreased (p<0.05). Compared with the normal group, the expression of IL-1β, NLRP3, GSDMD-N, and Caspase-1 in the Urotensin II group was increased (p<0.05), which decreased in the AS-IV and H-89 groups.

CONCLUSION: AS-IV can alleviate renal fibrosis by inhibiting Urotensin II-induced pyroptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells by regulating the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway.

PMID:38820434 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0304365