Based on HPLC and HS-GC-IMS Techniques, the Changes in the Internal Chemical Components of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. Fruit at Different Harvesting Periods Were Analyzed

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Molecules. 2024 Apr 22;29(8):1893. doi: 10.3390/molecules29081893.

ABSTRACT

Schisandra chinensis, as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has clear pharmacological effects such as treating asthma, protecting nerves and blood vessels, and having anti-inflammatory properties. Although the Schisandra chinensis fruit contain multiple active components, the lignans have been widely studied as the primary pharmacologically active compound. The volatile chemical components of Schisandra chinensis include a large amount of terpenes, which have been proven to have broad pharmacological activities. However, when to harvest to ensure the highest accumulation of pharmacologically active components in Schisandra chinensis fruits is a critical issue. The Schisandra chinensis fruit trees in the resource nursery were all planted in 2019 and began bearing fruit in 2021. Their nutritional status and tree vigor remain consistently good. The content of lignans and organic acids in the fruits of Schisandra chinensis over seven different harvest periods was tested, and the results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that the lignan content was higher, at 35 mg/g, in late July, and the organic acid content was higher, at 72.34 mg/g, in early September. If lignans and organic acids are to be selected as raw materials for pharmacological development, the harvest can be carried out at this stage. Using HS-GC-IMS technology, a total of 67 volatile flavor substances were detected, and the fingerprint of the volatile flavor substances in the different picking periods was established. It was shown by the results that the content of volatile flavor substances was the highest in early August, and 16 flavor substances were selected by odor activity value (OAV). The variable importance in projection (VIP) values of 16 substances were further screened, and terpinolene was identified as the key volatile flavor substance that caused the aroma characteristics of Schisandra chinensis fruit at different harvesting periods. If the aroma component content of Schisandra chinensis fruit is planned to be used as raw material for development and utilization, then early August, when the aroma component content is higher, should be chosen as the time for harvest. This study provides a theoretical basis for the suitable harvesting time of Schisandra chinensis for different uses, and promotes the high-quality development of the Schisandra chinensis industry.

PMID:38675712 | DOI:10.3390/molecules29081893