Can neonicotinoid and pyrrole insecticides manage malaria vector resistance in high pyrethroid resistance areas in Côte d’Ivoire?

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Malar J. 2024 May 22;23(1):160. doi: 10.1186/s12936-024-04917-y.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anopheles mosquito resistance to insecticide remains a serious threat to malaria vector control affecting several sub-Sahara African countries, including Côte d’Ivoire, where high pyrethroid, carbamate and organophosphate resistance have been reported. Since 2017, new insecticides, namely neonicotinoids (e.g.; clothianidin) and pyrroles (e.g.; chlorfenapyr) have been pre-qualified by the World Health Organization (WHO) for use in public health to manage insecticide resistance for disease vector control.

METHODS: Clothianidin and chlorfenapyr were tested against the field-collected Anopheles gambiae populations from Gagnoa, Daloa and Abengourou using the WHO standard insecticide susceptibility biossays. Anopheles gambiae larvae were collected from several larval habitats, pooled and reared to adulthood in each site in July 2020. Non-blood-fed adult female mosquitoes aged 2 to 5 days were exposed to diagnostic concentration deltamethrin, permethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, bendiocarb, and pirimiphos-methyl. Clothianidin 2% treated papers were locally made and tested using WHO tube bioassay while chlorfenapyr (100 µg/bottle) was evaluated using WHO bottle assays. Furthermore, subsamples of exposed mosquitoes were identified to species and genotyped for insecticide resistance markers including the knock-down resistance (kdr) west and east, and acetylcholinesterase (Ace-1) using molecular techniques.

RESULTS: High pyrethroid resistance was recorded with diagnostic dose in Abengourou (1.1 to 3.4% mortality), in Daloa (15.5 to 33.8%) and in Gagnoa (10.3 to 41.6%). With bendiocarb, mortality rates ranged from 49.5 to 62.3%. Complete mortality (100% mortality) was recorded with clothianidin in Gagnoa, 94.9% in Daloa and 96.6% in Abengourou, while susceptibility (mortality > 98%) to chlorfenapyr 100 µg/bottle was recorded at all sites and to pirimiphos-methyl in Gagnoa and Abengourou. Kdr-west mutation was present at high frequency (0.58 to 0.73) in the three sites and Kdr-east mutation frequency was recorded at a very low frequency of 0.02 in both Abengourou and Daloa samples and absent in Gagnoa. The Ace-1 mutation was present at frequencies between 0.19 and 0.29 in these areas. Anopheles coluzzii represented 100% of mosquitoes collected in Daloa and Gagnoa, and 72% in Abengourou.

CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that clothianidin and chlorfenapyr insecticides induce high mortality in the natural and pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae populations in Côte d’Ivoire. These results could support a resistance management plan by proposing an insecticide rotation strategy for vector control interventions.

PMID:38778399 | DOI:10.1186/s12936-024-04917-y