Cardiotoxicity Induced by Intratracheal Instillation of Diesel Exhaust Particles in Mice, and the Protective Effects of Carnosol: Suppression of Inflammation and Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress via Modulation of NF-κb/MAPKs Signaling Pathways

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Cell Physiol Biochem. 2024 Jun 14;58(3):273-287. doi: 10.33594/000000707.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inhaled particulate air pollution is associated with cardiotoxicity with underlying mechanisms including oxidative stress and inflammation. Carnosol, commonly found in rosemary and sage, is known to possess a broad range of therapeutic properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic. However, its cardioprotective effects on diesel exhaust particles (DEPs)-induced toxicity have not been studied yet. Hence, we evaluated the potential ameliorative effects of carnosol on DEPs-induced heart toxicity in mice, and the underlying mechanisms involved.

METHODS: Mice were intratracheally instilled with DEPs (1 mg/kg) or saline, and 1 hour prior to instillation they were given intraperitoneally either carnosol (20 mg/kg) or saline. Twenty-four hours after the DEPs instillation, multiple parameters were evaluated in the heart by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, colorimetric assay, Comet assay and Western blot technique.

RESULTS: Carnosol has significantly reduced the elevation in the plasma levels of lactate hydrogenase and brain natriuretic peptide induced by DEPs. Likewise, the augmented cardiac levels of proinflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation, and total nitric oxide in DEPs-treated groups were significantly normalized with the treatment of carnosol. Moreover, carnosol has markedly reduced the heart mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as DNA damage and apoptosis of mice treated with DEPs. Similarly, carnosol significantly reduced the elevated expressions of phosphorylated nuclear factor-кB (NF-кB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the hearts. Furthermore, the treatment with carnosol has restored the decrease in the expression of sirtuin-1 in the hearts of mice exposed to DEPs.

CONCLUSION: Carnosol significantly attenuated DEP-induced cardiotoxicity in mice by suppressing inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis, at least partly via mechanisms involving sirtuin-1 activation and the inhibition of NF-кB and MAPKs activation.

PMID:38881348 | DOI:10.33594/000000707