Chemical Composition, Anti-bacterial Activity and Molecular Docking Studies of Essential Oil Isolated from Sa Sam Nam (Launaea sarmentosa)

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J Oleo Sci. 2024;73(5):787-799. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess23254.

ABSTRACT

Launaea sarmentosa, also known as Sa Sam Nam, is a widely used remedy in Vietnamese traditional medicine and cuisine. However, the chemical composition and bioactivity of its essential oil have not been elucidated yet. In this study, we identified 40 compounds (98.6% of total peak area) in the essential oil via GC-MS analysis at the first time. Among them, five main compounds including Thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether (52.4%), (E)-α-Atlantone (9.0%), Neryl isovalerate (6.6%), Davanol D2 (isomer 2) (3.9%), and trans-Sesquisabinene hydrate (3.9%) have accounted for 75.8% of total peak area. The anti-bacterial activity of the essential oil against 4 microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has also investigated via agar well diffusion assay. The results showed that the essential oil exhibited a strong antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis with the inhibition zones ranging from 8.2 to 18.7 mm. To elucidate the anti-bacterial effect mechanism of the essential oil, docking study of five main compounds of the essential oil (Thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether, (E)-α-Atlantone, Neryl isovalerate, Davanol D2 (isomer 2), and trans-Sesquisabinene hydrate) against some key proteins for bacterial growth such as DNA gyrase B, penicillin binding protein 2A, tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, and dihydrofolate reductase were performed. The results showed that the main constituents of essential oil were highly bound with penicillin binding protein 2A with the free energies ranging -27.7 to -44.8 kcal/mol, which suggests the relationship between the antibacterial effect of essential oil and the affinity of main compounds with penicillin binding protein. In addition, the free energies of main compounds of the essential oil with human cyclooxygenase 1, cyclooxygenase 2, and phospholipase A2, the crucial proteins related with inflammatory response were less than diclofenac, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug. These findings propose the essential oil as a novel and promising anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory medicine or cosmetic products.

PMID:38692900 | DOI:10.5650/jos.ess23254