Crataegus pentagyna willd. Fruits, leaves and roots: phytochemicals, antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials

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BMC Complement Med Ther. 2024 Mar 19;24(1):126. doi: 10.1186/s12906-024-04430-4.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The hawthorn has recently been used as a popular herbal medicine in food applications and phytotherapy, especially for the cardiovascular system.

METHODS: In this study, phytochemicals were evaluated by LC-ESI-MS, GC-MS, and biological activity, including antioxidant (DPPH test) and antibacterial (broth dilution assay), in different extracts of Crataegus pentagyna fruit, leaf, and root.

RESULTS: Globally, 49 phenolics were tentatively identified using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS in the hydro-methanolic extract of the fruit (major apigenin, caffeoylquinic acid derivative, and 4-O-(3′-O-glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid), 42 in the leaf (major salicylic acid, naringenin-6-C-glucoside, and naringin), and 33 in the root (major naringenin-7-O-neohesperidoside, isovitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside, and 4-O-(3′-O-glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid). The major group compounds analyzed by GC-MS in petroleum ether extracts were hydrocarbons (63.80%) and fatty acids and their derivatives (11.77%) in fruit, hydrocarbons (49.20%) and fatty acids and their derivatives (13.85%) in leaf, and hydrocarbons (53.96%) and terpenes (13.06%) in root. All samples exhibited promising phytochemical profile (total phenol, flavonoid, phenolic acid, and anthocyanin), antioxidant and antibacterial capacities, especially in hydro-methanolic extract of fruit (210.22 ± 0.44 mg GAE/g DE; 79.93 ± 0.54 mg QE/g DE; 194.64 ± 0.32 mg CAE/g DE; 85.37 ± 0.13 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside/100 g FW; DPPH: 15.43 ± 0.65 µg/mL; MIC: 0.15-0.62 µg/mL; and MBC: 0.62-1.25 mg/mL), followed by the leaf and root extracts, respectively. The PCA and heatmap analysis results distinguished metabolite profile differences for samples.

CONCLUSION: The results of the present work provide scientific support for C. pentagyna as antimicrobial agents and natural antioxidants in human health and food preservation.

PMID:38504297 | DOI:10.1186/s12906-024-04430-4