Developing of an eco-friendly liquid-liquid microextraction method by using menthol-based hydrophobic deep eutectic solvent for determination of basic fuchsin dye: assessment of the greenness profile

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Environ Monit Assess. 2024 Apr 29;196(5):485. doi: 10.1007/s10661-024-12657-4.

ABSTRACT

Herein, we aimed to develop a new environmentally friendly liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) method based on hydrophobic deep eutectic solvent (hDES) synthesized using biodegradable dl-menthol and decanoic acid for the spectrophotometric determination of toxic basic fuchsin dye in environmental water samples. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as pH, mole ratio, and volume of hDES (1:2) and type and volume of organic solvent, sample volume, times of vortex, ultrasonic bath and centrifuge, ionic strength, and matrix effect were investigated and optimized. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve showed linearity in the range of 7.4-167 μg L-1 with a coefficient of determination of 0.9994. The limit of detection, intra-day and inter-day precision, and recovery values were 2.25 μg L-1, 2.46% and 4.45%, and 105 ± 3%, respectively. The preconcentration and enrichment factors were found to be 30 and 61.5, respectively. The proposed hDES-LLME methodology was successfully applied to the environmental water samples to detect toxic BF dye (95-105%). Finally, the ecological impact of the suggested method was evaluated using the analytical eco-scale (PPS:88), complementary green analytical procedure indexe (ComplexGAPI), and the Analytical GREEnness tool (0.63). The assessment results showed that the presented analytical method can be regarded as a green LLME approach for the determination of the BF in water.

PMID:38684572 | DOI:10.1007/s10661-024-12657-4