Did the prolonged residual efficacy of clothianidin products lead to a greater reduction in vector populations and subsequent malaria transmission compared to the shorter residual efficacy of pirimiphos-methyl?

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Malar J. 2024 Apr 25;23(1):119. doi: 10.1186/s12936-024-04949-4.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The residual activity of a clothianidin + deltamethrin mixture and clothianidin alone in IRS covered more than the period of malaria transmission in northern Benin. The aim of this study was to show whether the prolonged residual efficacy of clothianidin-based products resulted in a greater reduction in vector populations and subsequent malaria transmission compared with the shorter residual efficacy of pirimiphos-methyl.

METHODS: Human bait mosquito collections by local volunteers and pyrethrum spray collections were used in 6 communes under IRS monitoring and evaluation from 2019 to 2021. ELISA/CSP and species PCR tests were performed on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) to determine the infectivity rate and subspecies by commune and year. The decrease in biting rate, entomological inoculation rate, incidence, inhibition of blood feeding, resting density of An. gambiae s.l. were studied and compared between insecticides per commune.

RESULTS: The An. gambiae complex was the major vector throughout the study area, acounting for 98.71% (19,660/19,917) of all Anopheles mosquitoes collected. Anopheles gambiae s.l. collected was lower inside treated houses (45.19%: 4,630/10,245) than outside (54.73%: 5,607/10,245) after IRS (p < 0.001). A significant decrease (p < 0.001) in the biting rate was observed after IRS in all departments except Donga in 2021 after IRS with clothianidin 50 WG. The impact of insecticides on EIR reduction was most noticeable with pirimiphos-methyl 300 CS, followed by the clothianidin + deltamethrin mixture and finally clothianidin 50 WG. A reduction in new cases of malaria was observed in 2020, the year of mass distribution of LLINs and IRS, as well as individual and collective protection measures linked to COVID-19. Anopheles gambiae s.l. blood-feeding rates and parous were high and similar for all insecticides in treated houses.

CONCLUSION: To achieve the goal of zero malaria, the optimal choice of vector control tools plays an important role. Compared with pirimiphos-methyl, clothianidin-based insecticides induced a lower reductions in entomological indicators of malaria transmission.

PMID:38664703 | DOI:10.1186/s12936-024-04949-4