Effect of different inoculation strategies of mixed culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae/Oenococcus oeni on the aroma quality of Chardonnay wine

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Food Res Int. 2024 Aug;190:114636. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2024.114636. Epub 2024 Jun 10.

ABSTRACT

There has been growing interest in the use of mixed cultures comprised of Oenococcus oeni and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce wine with local style and typicality. This study has investigated the influence of the inoculation protocol of O. oeni on the fermentation kinetics and aromatic profile of Chardonnay wine. The one selected autochthonous O. oeni strain (ZX-1) inoculated at different stages of the alcoholic fermentation process successfully completed malolactic fermentation (MLF). Co-inoculum of S. cerevisiae and O. oeni enabled simultaneous alcoholic fermentation and MLF, leading to at least a 30 % reduction in the total fermentation time when compared to the sequential inoculation process, which was attributed to the lower ethanol stress. Meanwhile, co-inoculum stimulated the accumulation of volatile aroma compounds in Chardonnay wine. In particular, the mixed modality where the O. oeni strain ZX-1 was inoculated 48 h after S. cerevisiae allowed higher levels of terpenes, acetates, short-chain, and medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters to be produced, which may result in the enhanced floral and fruity attributes of wine. Aroma reconstitution and omission models analysis revealed that the accumulation of linalool, geraniol, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl caprylate during the mixed fermentation process enhanced the stone fruit, tropical fruit, and citrus aromas in Chardonnay wine. Therefore, the simultaneous fermentation of S. cerevisiae and autochthonous O. oeni ZX-1 has a positive effect on MLF and contributes to producing wines with distinctive style.

PMID:38945625 | DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2024.114636