Effects of Statin and Annatto-extracted Tocotrienol Supplementation on Glucose Homeostasis, Bone Microstructure, and Gut Microbiota Composition in Obese Mice


In Vivo. 2024 Jul-Aug;38(4):1557-1570. doi: 10.21873/invivo.13606.


BACKGROUND/AIM: This study examined the effects of tocotrienols (TT) in conjunction with statin on glucose homeostasis, bone microstructure, gut microbiome, and systemic and liver inflammatory markers in obese C57BL/6J mice.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and assigned into four groups in a 2 (no statin vs. 120 mg statin/kg diet)×2 (no TT vs. 400 mg TT/kg diet) factorial design for 14 weeks.

RESULTS: Statin and TT improved glucose tolerance only when each was given alone, and only statin supplementation decreased insulin resistance. Consistently, only statin supplementation decreased serum insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Pancreatic insulin was also increased with statin treatment. Statin and TT, alone or in combination, reduced the levels of serum IL-6, but only TT attenuated the increased serum leptin levels induced by a HFD. Statin supplementation increased bone area/total area and connectivity density at LV-4, while TT supplementation increased bone area/total area and trabecular number, but decreased trabecular separation at the distal femur. Statin supplementation, but not TT, reduced hepatic inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Neither TT supplementation nor statin supplementation statistically altered microbiome species evenness or richness. However, they altered the relative abundance of certain microbiome species. Most notably, both TT and statin supplementation increased the relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae UCG-006.

CONCLUSION: TT and statin collectively benefit bone microstructure, glucose homeostasis, and microbial ecology in obese mice. Such changes may be, in part, associated with suppression of inflammation in the host.

PMID:38936927 | DOI:10.21873/invivo.13606