Effects of Thymbra spicata extract and Thymol on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice (insights to the liver function, antioxidant, and behavioral responses)


Cell Biochem Funct. 2024 Jul;42(5):e4084. doi: 10.1002/cbf.4084.


Safe chemicals for drug withdrawal can be extracted from natural sources. This study investigates the effects of clonidine and Thymbra spicata extract (TSE) on mice suffering from morphine withdrawal syndrome. Thymol, which is the active constituent in TSE, was also tested. A total of 90 mice were divided into nine groups. Group 1 was the control group, while Group 2 was given only morphine, and Group 3 received morphine and 0.2 mg/kg of clonidine. Groups 4-6 were given morphine along with 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of TSE, respectively. Groups 7-9 received morphine plus 30, 60, and 90 mg/kg of Thymol, respectively, for 7 days. An oral naloxone challenge of 3 mg/kg was used to induce withdrawal syndrome in all groups. Improvement of liver enzyme levels (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine transaminase) (p < .01) and behavioral responses (frequencies of jumping, frequencies of two-legged standing, Straub tail reaction) (p < .01) were significantly observed in the groups receiving TSE and Thymol (Groups 4-9) compared to Group 2. Additionally, antioxidant activity in these groups was improved compared to Group 2. Nitric oxide significantly decreased in Groups 4 and 6 compared to Groups 2 and 3 (p < .01). Superoxide dismutase increased dramatically in Groups 5, 8, and 9 compared to Groups 2 and 3 (p < .01). Groups 5-9 were significantly different from Group 2 in terms of malondialdehyde levels (p < .01). Certain doses of TSE and Thymol were found to alleviate the narcotics withdrawal symptoms. This similar effect to clonidine can pave the way for their administration in humans.

PMID:38963282 | DOI:10.1002/cbf.4084