Epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary specificities of the association between venous thromboembolic event and cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: Case of Togo

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J Med Vasc. 2024 Apr;49(2):72-79. doi: 10.1016/j.jdmv.2023.12.046. Epub 2024 Jan 18.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to describe the clinical, paraclinical, therapeutic and outcomes of patients with venous thromboembolic event (VTE) associated with cancer in the context of limited resources.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study over a period of six years from March 1, 2016 to March 31, 2022, in the cardiology department and the oncology unit of the Sylvanus Olympio Teaching Hospital of Lome. Our study examined medical records of patients who were at least 18 years old and had venous thromboembolic disease and cancer that was histologically confirmed. This study did not include records that were incomplete or records from patients with coronavirus disease.

RESULTS: Our study included 87 patients with average age of 56.36±15.26 years. The discovery of VTE occurred incidentally in 28.74%. Venous thrombosis was isolated in 68.96% and proximal in 95%. Pulmonary embolism was bilateral in 77.77%. Gynaecological and urological cancers were found in 33.33% and 32.19% respectively. Adenocarcinoma was the histological type of cancer found in 47.13%. Cancers were at a very advanced stage in 74.71%. Treatment with antivitamin K was prescribed in 12.65%. In our study, there were 58 patients who passed away with a mortality rate of 66.66%. The cause of death was a complication of VTE in 22.42% and related to the course of cancer in 63.79% of cases.

CONCLUSION: VTE during cancer is particular with a fatal evolution due to the severity of VTE and the very advanced stage of cancer.

PMID:38697713 | DOI:10.1016/j.jdmv.2023.12.046