Extraction kinetics of Brazilian green propolis and chemical characterization of its volatiles

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Chem Biodivers. 2024 May 23:e202400610. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.202400610. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Propolis is a natural resinous product produced by Apis mellifera bees from the exudates of various plants. The color of propolis (green) is a consequence of its botanical origin, as bees collect young tissues and leaves of Baccaris dracunculifolia. This study evaluated the chemical composition and extraction kinetics of essential oils obtained from Brazilian green propolis by hydrodistillation. Hydrodistillation was performed for 360 min and analyzed at different times (30, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min), allowing the calculation of the accumulated content (% w/w) and the identification of the essential oil chemical profile. The GC/FID and GC/MS analysis led to the annotation of 60 compounds with estragole (13.30%), benzyl propanoate (14.59%), and (E)-nerolidol (13.57%) as the main compounds. The optimum conditions for extraction of phenylpropanoids (PP), hydrocarbons (HD), monoterpenes (MT), and oxygenated monoterpenes (OMT) are between 30 and 120 min. In comparison, sesquiterpenes (ST) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (OST) are extracted more efficiently between 240 and 360 min. The optimal extraction speed determination is essential for industrial-scale processing to obtain components such as sesquiterpenes, which have a high economic value in the cosmetic/perfumery and pharmaceutical industries.

PMID:38781510 | DOI:10.1002/cbdv.202400610