First report of V1016I, F1534C and V410L kdr mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti populations from Niamey, Niger


PLoS One. 2024 May 29;19(5):e0304550. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0304550. eCollection 2024.


BACKGROUND: Ae. aegypti is the vector of important μ arboviruses, including dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever. Despite not being specifically targeted by insecticide-based control programs in West Africa, resistance to insecticides in Ae. aegypti has been reported in countries within this region. In this study, we investigated the status and mechanisms of Ae. aegypti resistance in Niamey, the capital of Niger. This research aims to provide baseline data necessary for arbovirus outbreak prevention and preparedness in the country.

METHODS: Ovitraps were used to collect Ae. aegypti eggs, which were subsequently hatched in the insectary for bioassay tests. The hatched larvae were then reared to 3-5-day-old adults for WHO tube and CDC bottle bioassays, including synergist tests. The kdr mutations F1534C, V1016I, and V410L were genotyped using allele-specific PCR and TaqMan qPCR methods.

RESULTS: Ae. aegypti from Niamey exhibited moderate resistance to pyrethroids but susceptibility to organophosphates and carbamates. The kdr mutations, F1534C, V1016I and V410L were detected with the resistant tri-locus haplotype 1534C+1016L+410L associated with both permethrin and deltamethrin resistance. Whereas the homozygote tri-locus resistant genotype 1534CC+1016LL+410LL was linked only to permethrin resistance. The involvement of oxidase and esterase enzymes in resistance mechanisms was suggested by partial restoration of mosquitoes’ susceptibility to pyrethroids in synergist bioassays.

CONCLUSION: This study is the first report of Ae. aegypti resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in Niamey. The resistance is underpinned by target site mutations and potentially involves metabolic enzymes. The observed resistance to pyrethroids coupled with susceptibility to other insecticides, provides data to support evidence-based decision-making for Ae. aegypti control in Niger.

PMID:38809933 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0304550