Gedunin modulates cellular growth and apoptosis in glioblastoma cell lines

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Cancer Rep (Hoboken). 2024 May;7(5):e2051. doi: 10.1002/cnr2.2051.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas are characterized by aggressive behavior. Surgery, radiotherapy, and alkylating agents, including temozolomide are the most common treatment options for glioblastoma. Often, conventional therapies fail to treat these tumors since they develop drug resistance. There is a need for newer agents to combat this deadly tumor. Natural products such as gedunin have shown efficacy in several human diseases. A comprehensive study of gedunin, an heat shock protein (HSP)90 inhibitor, has not been thoroughly investigated in glioblastoma cell lines with different genetic modifications.

AIMS: A key objective of this study was to determine how gedunin affects the biological and signaling mechanisms in glioblastoma cells, and to determine how those mechanisms affect the proliferation and apoptosis of glioblastoma cells.

METHODS: The viability potentials of gedunin were tested using MTT, cell counts, and wound healing assays. Gedunin’s effects on glioma cells were further validated using LDH and colony formation assays. In addition, we investigated the survival and apoptotic molecular signaling targets perturbed by gedunin using Western blot analysis and flow cytometry.

RESULTS: Our results show that there was a reduction in cell viability and inhibition of wound healing in the cells tested. Western blot analysis of the gene expression data revealed genes such as EGFR and mTOR/Akt/NF kappa B to be associated with gedunin sensitivity. Gedunin treatment induced apoptosis by cleaving poly ADP-ribose polymerase, activating caspases, and downregulating BCL-xL. Based on these results, gedunin suppressed cell growth and HSP client proteins, resulting in apoptosis in glioblastoma cell lines.

CONCLUSION: Our data provide in vitro support for the anticancer activity of gedunin in glioma cells by downregulating cancer survival proteins.

PMID:38702989 | DOI:10.1002/cnr2.2051