Genipin’s potential as an anti-cancer agent: from phytochemical origins to clinical prospects

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Med Oncol. 2024 Jun 25;41(8):186. doi: 10.1007/s12032-024-02429-y.

ABSTRACT

This comprehensive review delves into the multifaceted aspects of genipin, a bioactive compound derived from medicinal plants, focusing on its anti-cancer potential. The review begins by detailing the sources and phytochemical properties of genipin, underscoring its significance in traditional medicine and its transition into contemporary cancer research. It then explores the intricate relationship between genipin’s chemical structure and its observed anti-cancer activity, highlighting the molecular underpinnings contributing to its therapeutic potential. This is complemented by a thorough analysis of preclinical studies, which investigates genipin’s efficacy against various cancer cell lines and its mechanisms of action at the cellular level. A crucial component of the review is the examination of genipin’s bioavailability and pharmacokinetics, providing insights into how the compound is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted in the body. Then, this review offers a general and updated overview of the anti-cancer studies of genipin and its derivatives based on its basic molecular mechanisms, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of cell proliferation, and disruption of cancer cell signaling pathways. We include information that complements the genipin study, such as toxicity data, and we differentiate this review by including commercial status, disposition, and regulation. Also, this review of genipin stands out for incorporating information on proposals for a technological approach through its load in nanotechnology to improve its bioavailability. The culmination of this information positions genipin as a promising candidate for developing novel anti-cancer drugs capable of supplementing or enhancing current cancer therapies.

PMID:38918260 | DOI:10.1007/s12032-024-02429-y