Ginkgo biloba and Its Chemical Components in the Management of Alzheimer’s Disease

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Am J Chin Med. 2024 Apr 24:1-42. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X24500277. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, remains unclear. The main manifestations of AD include cognitive and behavioral disorders, neuropsychiatric symptoms, neuroinflammation, amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. However, current drugs for AD once the dementia stage has been reached only treat symptoms and do not delay progression, and the research and development of targeted drugs for AD have reached a bottleneck. Thus, other treatment options are needed. Bioactive ingredients derived from plants are promising therapeutic agents. Specifically, Ginkgo biloba (Gb) extracts exert anti-oxidant, anticancer, neuroplastic, neurotransmitter-modulating, blood fluidity, and anti-inflammatory effects, offering alternative options in the treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases. The main chemical components of Gb include flavonoids, terpene lactones, proanthocyanidins, organic acids, polysaccharides, and amino acids. Gb and its extracts have shown remarkable therapeutic effects on various neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, with few adverse reactions. Thus, high-quality Gb extracts are a well-established treatment option for AD. In this review, we summarize the insights derived from traditional Chinese medicine, experimental models, and emerging clinical trials on the role of Gb and its chemical components in the treatment of the main clinical manifestations of AD.

PMID:38654507 | DOI:10.1142/S0192415X24500277