Ginsenoside Rg1 Induces Autophagy in Colorectal Cancer through Inhibition of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K Pathway

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J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2024 Apr 28;34(4):774-782. doi: 10.4014/jmb.2310.10043. Epub 2024 Jan 12.

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to elucidate the anti-colon cancer mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 in vitro and in vivo. Cell viability rate was detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) tetrazolium assay. The inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg1 against CT26 cell proliferation gradually increased with increasing concentration. The in vivo experiments also demonstrated an antitumor effect. The monodansylcadaverine (MDC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and expression of autophagy marker proteins confirmed that ginsenoside Rg1 induced autophagy in vitro. Ginsenoside Rg1 induced autophagy death of CT26 cells, but this effect could be diminished by autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine, 3-MA). Additionally, in a xenograft model, immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues showed that the LC3 and Beclin-1 proteins were highly expressed in the tumors from the ginsenoside Rg1-treated nude mice, confirming that ginsenoside Rg1 also induced autophagy in vivo. Furthermoer, both in vivo and in vitro, the protein expressions of p-Akt, p-mTOR, and p-p70S6K were inhibited by ginsenoside Rg1, which was verified by Akt inhibitors. These results indicated that the mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 against colon cancer was associated with autophagy through inhibition of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway.

PMID:38668684 | DOI:10.4014/jmb.2310.10043