Haplotype-resolved genome assembly of the diploid Rosa chinensis provides insight into the mechanisms underlying key ornamental traits

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Mol Hortic. 2024 Apr 16;4(1):14. doi: 10.1186/s43897-024-00088-1.

ABSTRACT

Roses are consistently ranked at the forefront in cut flower production. Increasing demands of market and changing climate conditions have resulted in the need to further improve the diversity and quality of traits. However, frequent hybridization leads to highly heterozygous nature, including the allelic variants. Therefore, the absence of comprehensive genomic information leads to them making it challenging to molecular breeding. Here, two haplotype-resolved chromosome genomes for Rosa chinensis ‘Chilong Hanzhu’ (2n = 14) which is high heterozygous diploid old Chinese rose are generated. An amount of genetic variation (1,605,616 SNPs, 209,575 indels) is identified. 13,971 allelic genes show differential expression patterns between two haplotypes. Importantly, these differences hold valuable insights into regulatory mechanisms of traits. RcMYB114b can influence cyanidin-3-glucoside accumulation and the allelic variation in its promoter leads to differences in promoter activity, which as a factor control petal color. Moreover, gene family expansion may contribute to the abundance of terpenes in floral scents. Additionally, RcANT1, RcDA1, RcAG1 and RcSVP1 genes are involved in regulation of petal number and size under heat stress treatment. This study provides a foundation for molecular breeding to improve important characteristics of roses.

PMID:38622744 | DOI:10.1186/s43897-024-00088-1