Impact of Environmental Conditions on the Concentrations of Trichothecenes, Their Glucosides, and Emerging Fusarium Toxins in Naturally Contaminated, Irradiated, and Fusarium langsethiae Inoculated Oats


Toxins (Basel). 2024 Mar 22;16(4):166. doi: 10.3390/toxins16040166.


Trichothecenes produced by Fusarium species are commonly detected in oats. However, the ratios of the concentrations of free trichothecenes and their conjugates and how they are impacted by different interacting environmental conditions are not well documented. This study aims to examine the effect of water activity (0.95 and 0.98 aw) and temperature (20 and 25 °C) stress on the production of T-2 and HT-2 toxins, deoxynivalenol and their conjugates, as well as diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS). Multiple mycotoxins were detected using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from 64 contaminated oat samples. The highest concentrations of HT-2-glucoside (HT-2-Glc) were observed at 0.98 aw and 20 °C, and were higher than other type A trichothecenes in the natural oats’ treatments. However, no statistical differences were found between the mean concentrations of HT-2-Glc and HT-2 toxins in all storage conditions analysed. DAS concentrations were generally low and highest at 0.95 aw and 20 °C, while deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside levels were highest at 0.98 aw and 20 °C in the naturally contaminated oats. Emerging mycotoxins such as beauvericin, moniliformin, and enniatins mostly increased with a rise in water activity and temperature in the naturally contaminated oats treatment. This study reinforces the importance of storage aw and temperature conditions in the high risk of free and modified toxin contamination of small cereal grains.

PMID:38668591 | DOI:10.3390/toxins16040166