Implications of Jatropha curcas L. cake feed on swine health: A microbiota-gut-brain axis perspective

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Anim Sci J. 2024 Jan-Dec;95(1):e13953. doi: 10.1111/asj.13953.

ABSTRACT

The safety of Jatropha curcas L. cake (JCC) in animal feed remains under scrutiny, despite the advent of low phorbol ester (PE) variants. This study investigates the impact of low PE JCC on swine health when used as a protein feed. Pigs were fed a 5% JCC diet with a PE concentration of 0.98 mg/kg, which surprisingly still induced toxicity. Symptoms included depression, decreased food intake, increased diarrhea, along with hypothalamus and colon lesions. The toxicity was associated with a decrease in antioxidant enzymes, an increase in inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus, plasma, and colon, and a rise in pro-inflammatory colon microbes and metabolites. Disturbances in neurotransmitters further suggest that this toxicity is related to disruption of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, indicating that JCC’s toxic elements are not solely due to PE. The sensitivity of pigs to JCC underscores the need for thorough detoxification prior to its use as feed. These findings significantly contribute to the discourse on the safety of low PE JCC in animal feed, highlighting implications for both the feed industry and public health.

PMID:38783533 | DOI:10.1111/asj.13953