Insecticidal activity of Thymus pallescens de Noë and Cymbogon citratus essential oils against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum

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Sci Rep. 2024 Jun 17;14(1):13951. doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-64757-3.

ABSTRACT

The thrust of the study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from Thymus pallescens de Noé and Cymbogon citratus Stapf. as well as to evaluate their efficacy in controlling Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in either single or combined populations. Carvacrol (56.04%) and geraniol (20.86%) were identified as the major constituents of T. pallescens and C. citratus respectively. The tested essential oils showed pronounced insecticidal activity against the pest species in relation with the applied doses. T. pallescens EO had the highest efficacy and S. zeamais was found to be more susceptible to both individual and combined treatments. With reference to the contact and fumigation assessments, T. pallescens EO effectuated corrected mortality rates ranging from 42.5-100% to 25-100% in S. zeamais with corresponding lethal concentration (LC50) values of 17.7 µl/ml and 15µL/L air respectively. Whereas, the T. pallescens EO exhibited corrected mortality rates of 42.5-100% and 20-100% with corresponding LC50 values of 18.1 µl/ml and 15.5 µL/L air against T. castaneum in contact and fumigation assessments, respectively. The corrected mortality rates increased for both insect species when using combination treatments, with significant increases in the LC50 values, ranging from 8.59 to 49.9% for both pest species. Analysis of energy biomarkers in the treated insects indicate significantly increased protein and carbohydrate contents and decreased lipids levels. The study therefore demonstrated the bio-insecticidal toxicity of the EOs from T. pallescens and C. citratus against two important maize post-harvest pests, concurrently revealing significant positive and negative insecticidal activity gradients in relation to single or combined populations.

PMID:38886531 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-024-64757-3