Iodine enriched kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica L.)-The influence of heat treatments on its iodine content, basic composition and antioxidative properties


PLoS One. 2024 Jun 27;19(6):e0304005. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0304005. eCollection 2024.


Iodine deficiency in the diet globally continues to be a cause of many diseases and disabilities. Kale is a vegetable that has health-promoting potential because of many nutrients and bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, carotenoids, glucosinolates and phenolic compounds). Brassica vegetables, including kale, have been strongly recommended as dietary adjuvants for improving health. The nutrient and health-promoting compounds in kale are significantly affected by thermal treatments. Changes in phytochemicals upon such activities may result from two contrary phenomena: breakdown of nutrients and bioactive compounds and a matrix softening effect, which increases the extractability of phytochemicals, which may be especially significant in the case of iodine-fortified kale. This study investigated changes of basic composition, iodine, vitamin C, total carotenoids and polyphenols contents as well as antioxidant activity caused by steaming, blanching and boiling processes in the levels of two cultivars of kale (green and red) non-biofortified and biofortified via the application to nutrient solutions in hydroponic of two iodoquinolines [8-hydroxy-7-iodo-5-quinolinesulfonic acid (8-OH-7-I-5QSA) and 5-chloro-7-iodo-8-quinoline (5-Cl-7-I-8-Q)] and KIO3. Thermal processes generally significantly reduced the content of the components in question and the antioxidant activity of kale, regardless of cultivar and enrichment. It was observed that the red cultivar of kale had a greater ability to accumulate and reduce iodine losses during the culinary processes. 8-hydroxy-7-iodo-5-quinolinesulfonic acid showed a protective effect against the treatments used, compared to other enrichments, thus contributing to the preservation of high iodine content.

PMID:38935598 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0304005