KAR1-induced dormancy release in Avena fatua caryopses involves reduction of caryopsis sensitivity to ABA and ABA/GAs ratio in coleorhiza and radicle

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Planta. 2024 Apr 18;259(6):126. doi: 10.1007/s00425-024-04387-1.

ABSTRACT

The dormancy release by KAR1 is associated with a reduction of coleorhiza and radicle sensitivity to ABA as well as with reduction the ABA/GAs ratio in the coleorhiza, by a decrease content of ABA, and in the radicle, by a decrease the ABA and an increase of the GAs contents. Both, karrikin 1 (KAR1) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), release dormancy in Avena fatua caryopses, resulting in the emergence of coleorhiza (CE) and radicle (RE). Moreover, KAR1 and GA3 stimulate CE and RE in the presence of abscisic acid (ABA), the stimulation being more effective in CE. The stimulatory effects of KAR1 and GA3 involve also the CE and RE rates. A similar effect was observed at KAR1 concentrations much lower than those of GA3. KAR1 increased the levels of bioactive GA5 and GA6 in embryos and the levels of GA1, GA5, GA3, GA6 and GA4 in radicles. The stimulatory effect of KAR1 on germination, associated with increased levels of gibberellins (GAs) and reduced levels of ABA in embryos, was counteracted by paclobutrazol (PAC), commonly regarded as a GAs biosynthesis inhibitor. Consequently, KAR1 decreased the ABA/GAs ratio, whereas PAC, used alone or in combination with KAR1, increased it. The ABA/GAs ratio was reduced by KAR1 in both coleorhiza and radicle, the effect being stronger in the latter. We present the first evidence that KAR1-induced dormancy release requires a decreased ABA/GAs ratio in coleorhiza and radicle. It is concluded that the dormancy-releasing effect of KAR1 in A. fatua caryopses includes (i) a reduction of the coleorhiza and radicle sensitivity to ABA, and (2) a reduction of the ABA/GAs ratio (i) in the coleorhiza, by decreasing the ABA content, and (ii) in the radicle, by decreasing the ABA and increasing the content GAs, particularly GA1. The results may suggest different mechanisms of dormancy release by KAR1 in monocot and dicot seeds.

PMID:38635035 | DOI:10.1007/s00425-024-04387-1