LPS and ATP-induced Death of PMA-differentiated THP-1 Macrophages and its Validation


J Vis Exp. 2024 May 3;(207). doi: 10.3791/66831.


Cell death is a fundamental process in all living organisms. The protocol establishes a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated lipid deposition in human monocyte (THP-1) macrophage model to observe cell death. LPS combined with ATP is a classic inflammatory induction method, often used to study pyroptosis, but apoptosis and necroptosis also respond to stimulation by LPS/ATP. Under normal circumstances, phosphatidylserine is only localized in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. However, in the early stages of pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis, the cell membrane remains intact and exposed to phosphatidylserine, and in the later stages, the cell membrane loses its integrity. Here, flow cytometry was used to analyze Annexin V and 7-Aminoactinomycin D (AAD) double staining to detect the cell death from the whole cells. The results show that substantial cells died after stimulation with LPS/ATP. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observe the possible forms of cell death in individual cells. The results indicate that cells may undergo pyroptosis, apoptosis, or necroptosis after stimulation with LPS/ATP. This protocol focuses on observing the death of macrophages after stimulation with LPS/ATP. The results showed that cell death after LPS and ATP stimulation is not limited to pyroptosis and that apoptosis and necrotic apoptosis can also occur, helping researchers better understand cell death after LPS and ATP stimulation and choose a better experimental method.

PMID:38767387 | DOI:10.3791/66831