Lycopene promoted M2 macrophage polarization via inhibition of NOTCH1-PI3K-mTOR-NF-κB-JMJD3-IRF4 pathway in response to Escherichia coli infection in J744A.1 cells

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Arch Microbiol. 2024 May 7;206(6):249. doi: 10.1007/s00203-024-03971-z.

ABSTRACT

Escherichia coli (E. coli) can induce severe clinical bovine mastitis, which is to blame for large losses experienced by dairy farms. Macrophage polarization into various states is in response to pathogen infections. Lycopene, a naturally occurring hydrocarbon carotenoid, relieved inflammation by controlling M1/M2 status of macrophages. Thus, we wanted to explore the effect of lycopene on polarization states of macrophages in E. coli-induced mastitis. Macrophages were cultivated with lycopene for 24, before E. coli inoculation for 6 h. Lycopene (0.5 μmol/L) significantly enhanced cell viabilities and significantly reduced lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in macrophages, whereas 2 and 3 μmol/L lycopene significantly enhanced LDH activities. Lycopene treatment significantly reduced the increase in LDH release, iNOS, CD86, TNF-α, IL-1β and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expressions in E. coli group. 0.5 μmol/L lycopene significantly increased E. coli-induced downregulation of CD206, arginase I (ARG1), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), chitinase 3-like 3 (YM1), PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-mTOR, jumonji domain-containing protein-3 (JMJD3) and interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) levels. Moreover, Ginkgolic acid C17:1 (a specific PTEN inhibitor), 740YPDGFR (a specific PI3K activator), SC79 (a specific AKT activator) or CHPG sodium salt (a specific NF-κB activator) significantly decreased CD206, AGR1, IDO and YM1 expressions in lycopene and E. coli-treated macrophages. Therefore, lycopene increased M2 macrophages via inhibiting NOTCH1-PI3K-mTOR-NF-κB-JMJD3-IRF4 pathway in response to E. coli infection in macrophages. These results contribute to revealing the pathogenesis of E. coli-caused bovine mastitis, providing the new angle of the prevention and management of mastitis.

PMID:38713385 | DOI:10.1007/s00203-024-03971-z