Microbial dynamics and quality characteristics of spontaneously fermented salamis produced by replacing pork fat with avocado pulp

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Food Microbiol. 2024 Sep;122:104536. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2024.104536. Epub 2024 Apr 14.

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to develop a novel and healthier fermented meat product by replacing pork fat with avocado pulp (AVP) during salami production. Experimental salamis were produced under laboratory conditions by substituting pork fat with AVP partially (10-AVP) and totally (20-AVP), while control salamis (CTR) remained AVP-free. The microbial composition of control and experimental salamis was assessed using a combined culture-dependent and -independent approach. Over a 20-days ripening period, lactic acid bacteria, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and yeasts dominated the microbial community, with approximate levels of 9.0, 7.0 and 6.0 log CFU/g, respectively. Illumina technology identified 26 taxonomic groups, with leuconostocs being the predominant group across all trials [constituting 31.26-59.12 % of relative abundance (RA)]. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed changes in fatty acid composition and volatile organic compounds due to the substitution of pork fat with AVP. Specifically, monounsaturated fatty acids and terpene compounds increased, while saturated fatty acids and lipid oxidation products decreased. Although AVP influenced the sensory characteristics of the salamis, the highest overall satisfaction ratings were observed for the 10-AVP salamis. Consequently, substituting pork fat with AVP emerges as a viable strategy for producing healthier salamis and diversifying the meat product portfolio.

PMID:38839216 | DOI:10.1016/j.fm.2024.104536