Novel glycosidase from Paenibacillus lactis 154 hydrolyzing the 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester bond of oleanane-type saponins

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Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2024 Apr 4;108(1):282. doi: 10.1007/s00253-024-13109-2.

ABSTRACT

Oleanane-type ginsenosides are a class of compounds with remarkable pharmacological activities. However, the lack of effective preparation methods for specific rare ginsenosides has hindered the exploration of their pharmacological properties. In this study, a novel glycoside hydrolase PlGH3 was cloned from Paenibacillus lactis 154 and heterologous expressed in Escherichia coli. Sequence analysis revealed that PlGH3 consists of 749 amino acids with a molecular weight of 89.5 kDa, exhibiting the characteristic features of the glycoside hydrolase 3 family. The enzymatic characterization results of PlGH3 showed that the optimal reaction pH and temperature was 8 and 50 °C by using p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside as a substrate, respectively. The Km and kcat values towards ginsenoside Ro were 79.59 ± 3.42 µM and 18.52 s-1, respectively. PlGH3 exhibits a highly specific activity on hydrolyzing the 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester bond of oleanane-type saponins. The mechanism of hydrolysis specificity was then presumably elucidated through molecular docking. Eventually, four kinds of rare oleanane-type ginsenosides (calenduloside E, pseudoginsenoside RP1, zingibroside R1, and tarasaponin VI) were successfully prepared by biotransforming total saponins extracted from Panax japonicus. This study contributes to understanding the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis of the GH3 family and provides a practical route for the preparation of rare oleanane-type ginsenosides through biotransformation. KEY POINTS: • The glucose at C-28 in oleanane-type saponins can be directionally hydrolyzed. • Mechanisms to interpret PlGH3 substrate specificity by molecular docking. • Case of preparation of low-sugar alternative saponins by directed hydrolysis.

PMID:38573330 | DOI:10.1007/s00253-024-13109-2