Physical and insecticidal durability of Interceptor®, Interceptor® G2, and PermaNet® 3.0 insecticide-treated nets in Burkina Faso: results of durability monitoring in three sites from 2019 to 2022

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Malar J. 2024 Jun 4;23(1):173. doi: 10.1186/s12936-024-04989-w.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: National Malaria Programmes (NMPs) monitor the durability of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to inform procurement and replacement decisions. This is crucial for new dual active ingredients (AI) ITNs, for which less data is available. Pyrethroid-only ITN (Interceptor®) and dual AI (Interceptor® G2, and PermaNet® 3.0) ITNs were assessed across three health districts over 36 months in southern Burkina Faso to estimate median ITN survival, insecticidal efficacy, and to identify factors contributing to field ITN longevity.

METHODS: Durability was monitored through a prospective study of a cohort of nets distributed during the 2019 mass campaign. Three health districts were selected for their similar pyrethroid-resistance, environmental, epidemiological, and population profiles. Households were recruited after the mass campaign, with annual household questionnaire follow-ups over three years. Each round, ITNs were withdrawn for bioassays and chemical residue testing. Key measures were the percentage of cohort ITNs in serviceable condition, insecticidal effectiveness, and chemical residue content against target dose. Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify determinants influencing ITN survival.

RESULTS: At endline, the median useful life was 3.2 (95% CI 2.5-4.0) years for PermaNet® 3.0 ITNs in Orodara, 2.6 (95% CI 1.9-3.2) years for Interceptor® G2 ITNs in Banfora and 2.4 (95% CI 1.9-2.9) years for Interceptor® ITNs in Gaoua. Factors associated with ITN survival included cohort ITNs from Orodara (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.58, p = 0.026), households seeing less rodents (aHR = 0.66, p = 0.005), female-headed households (aHR = 0.66, p = 0.044), exposure to social behavior change (SBC) messages (aHR = 0.52, ≤ 0.001) and folding nets when not in use (aHR = 0.47, p < 0.001). At endline, PermaNet® 3.0 ITN recorded 24-h mortality of 26% against resistant mosquitos on roof panels, with an 84% reduction in PBO content. Interceptor® G2 ITN 72-h mortality was 51%, with a 67% reduction in chlorfenapyr content. Interceptor® ITN 24-h mortality was 71%, with an 84% reduction in alpha-cypermethrin content.

CONCLUSION: Only PermaNet® 3.0 ITNs surpassed the standard three-year survival threshold. Identified protective factors should inform SBC messaging. Significant decreases in chemical content and resulting impact on bioefficacy warrant more research in other countries to better understand dual AI ITN insecticidal performance.

PMID:38835017 | DOI:10.1186/s12936-024-04989-w