Phytochemical profile and determination of cytotoxicity, acute oral toxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pseudobombax marginatum (A. St.-Hil.) A. Robyns

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J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2024 Aug 17;87(16):662-673. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2024.2358352. Epub 2024 May 29.

ABSTRACT

Pseudobombax marginatum, popularly known as “embiratanha,” is widely used by traditional communities as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent. This study aimed to determine the phytochemical profile as well as cytotoxicity, acute oral toxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity attributed to exposure to aqueous (AqEx) and ethanolic (EtEx) extracts of embiratanha bark. Phytochemical screening was conducted using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Cell viability was analyzed using MTT assay with human mammary gland adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) and macrophage (J774A.1) cell lines, exposed to concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, or 100 µg/ml of either extract. For acute oral toxicity, comet assay and micronucleus (MN) tests, a single dose of 2,000 mg/kg of either extract was administered orally to Wistar rats. TLC analysis identified classes of metabolites in the extracts, including cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids, hydrolyzable tannins, condensed tannins, coumarins, and terpenes/steroids. In the cytotoxicity assay, the varying concentrations of extracts derived from embiratanha induced no significant alterations in the viability of MDA-MB-231 cells. The lowest concentration of EtEx significantly increased macrophage J774A.1 viability. However, the higher concentrations of AqEx markedly lowered macrophage J774A.1 viability. Animals exhibited no toxicity in the parameters analyzed in acute oral toxicity, comet assay, and MN tests. Further, EtEx promoted a significant reduction in DNA damage index and DNA damage frequency utilizing the comet assay, while the group treated with AqEx exhibited no marked differences. Thus, data demonstrated that AqEx or EtEx of embiratanha may be considered safe at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg orgally under our experimental conditions tested.

PMID:38808737 | DOI:10.1080/15287394.2024.2358352