Phytochemistry, Bioactivity, and Ethnopharmacology of the Genus Lepechinia Willd. (Lamiaceae): A Review

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Plants (Basel). 2024 Feb 8;13(4):481. doi: 10.3390/plants13040481.

ABSTRACT

The genus Lepechinia (Lamiaceae) involves several aromatic shrubs that are distributed only in the American continent, inhabiting mountain areas, mainly in the Andean region of South America. Based on the PRISMA approach, we selected and critically analyzed 48 research articles. From a phytochemical point of view, most of the secondary metabolites reported in Lepechinia spp. are terpenes and terpenoids, with a few exceptions comprising flavonoids and other shikimic acid derivatives. On the one hand, sesquiterpenoids of the guajane, aromadendrane, eudesmane, and cadinane groups are characteristic of essential oils, together with (E)-β-caryophyllene as the main representative of its chemical family. On the other hand, abietane diterpenoids are the prevalent compounds described in non-volatile fractions. Many biological activities and traditional medical uses have been reported for both pure metabolites and complex mixtures (e.g., essential oils). Regarding ethno-medical uses, the treatment of muscle pain, headache, toothache, diabetes mellitus, uterine tumors, uterine infections, and diarrhea has been reported. Concerning their verified biological activities, insecticidal, antifungal, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase properties have been described. Furthermore, some data concerning anti-herpetic activity have been reported.

PMID:38498420 | DOI:10.3390/plants13040481