Predictors of late lumen enlargement after drug-coated balloon angioplasty for de novo coronary lesions

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EuroIntervention. 2024 May 10;20(9):602-612. doi: 10.4244/EIJ-D-23-00849.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Late lumen enlargement (LLE) – a positive remodelling phenomenon – after drug-coated balloon (DCB) angioplasty for stable coronary disease contributes to a lower restenosis rate. However, lesion characteristics promoting LLE remain unclear.

AIMS: This study aimed to investigate predictive lesion characteristics for LLE using serial optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) following DCB angioplasty for de novo coronary artery lesions.

METHODS: This retrospective, single-centre observational study included patients with angina pectoris who underwent paclitaxel-coated balloon angioplasty without stenting under OFDI guidance as well as follow-up OFDI. OFDI endpoints were lumen volume, plaque phenotype, and procedure-associated dissection. LLE was defined as a ≥10% increase in the lumen volume of the treated lesion at follow-up.

RESULTS: Between August 2016 and December 2019, among patients with successful DCB angioplasty, 108 lesions (83 patients) had available follow-up imaging after a median of 6.1 months. LLE was detected in 44 (40.7%) lesions. Fibrous/fibrocalcific and layered plaques had significantly larger lumen volumes at follow-up than immediately after the index procedure, whereas lipid plaques exhibited no significant difference. Medial dissection with an arc >90° revealed an increased lumen volume. Multivariate analysis showed that layered plaques (odds ratio [OR] 8.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.92-39.7; p=0.005) and medial dissection with an arc >90° (OR 4.65, 95% CI: 1.63-13.3; p=0.004) were independent LLE predictors.

CONCLUSIONS: Layered plaques and extensive medial dissection after DCB angioplasty were associated with higher LLE occurrence in de novo coronary lesions. These findings may be clinically applicable to DCB therapeutic strategies based on plaque features.

PMID:38726721 | DOI:10.4244/EIJ-D-23-00849