Recent developments in the engineered biosynthesis of fungal meroterpenoids

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Beilstein J Org Chem. 2024 Mar 13;20:578-588. doi: 10.3762/bjoc.20.50. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

Meroterpenoids are hybrid compounds that are partially derived from terpenoids. This group of natural products displays large structural diversity, and many members exhibit beneficial biological activities. This mini-review highlights recent advances in the engineered biosynthesis of meroterpenoid compounds with C15 and C20 terpenoid moieties, with the reconstruction of fungal meroterpenoid biosynthetic pathways in heterologous expression hosts and the mutagenesis of key enzymes, including terpene cyclases and α-ketoglutarate (αKG)-dependent dioxygenases, that contribute to the structural diversity. Notable progress in genome sequencing has led to the discovery of many novel genes encoding these enzymes, while continued efforts in X-ray crystallographic analyses of these enzymes and the invention of AlphaFold2 have facilitated access to their structures. Structure-based mutagenesis combined with applications of unnatural substrates has further diversified the catalytic repertoire of these enzymes. The information in this review provides useful knowledge for the design of biosynthetic machineries to produce a variety of bioactive meroterpenoids.

PMID:38505236 | PMC:PMC10949012 | DOI:10.3762/bjoc.20.50