Resistance to pyrethroids and the relationship between adult resistance and knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in Aedes albopictus in dengue surveillance areas of Guizhou Province, China

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Sci Rep. 2024 May 28;14(1):12216. doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-63138-0.

ABSTRACT

The Ae. albopictus mosquito has gained global attention due to its ability to transmit viruses, including the dengue and zika. Mosquito control is the only effective way to manage dengue fever, as no effective treatments or vaccines are available. Insecticides are highly effective in controlling mosquito densities, which reduces the chances of virus transmission. However, Ae. albopictus has developed resistance to pyrethroids in several provinces in China. Pyrethroids target the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (VGSC), and mutations in this gene may result in knockdown resistance (kdr). Correlation studies between resistance and mutations can assist viruses in managing Ae. albopictus, which has not been studied in Guizhou province. Nine field populations of Ae. albopictus at the larval stage were collected from Guizhou Province in 2022 and reared to F1 to F2 generations. Resistance bioassays were conducted against permethrin, beta-cypermethrin, and deltamethrin for both larvae and adults of Ae. albopictus. Kdr mutations were characterized by PCR and sequencing. Additionally, the correlation between the kdr allele and pyrethroid resistance was analyzed. All nine populations of Ae. albopictus larvae and adults were found to be resistant to three pyrethroid insecticides. One kdr mutant allele at codon 1016, one at 1532 and three at 1534 were identified with frequencies of 13.86% (V1016G), 0.53% (I1532T), 58.02% (F1534S), 11.69% (F1534C), 0.06% (F1534L) and 0.99% (F1534P), respectively. Both V1016G and F1534S mutation mosquitoes were found in all populations. The kdr mutation F1534S was positively correlated with three pyrethroid resistance phenotypes (OR > 1, P < 0.05), V1016G with deltamethrin and beta-cypermethrin resistance (OR > 1, P < 0.05) and F1534C only with beta-cypermethrin resistance (OR > 1, P < 0.05). Current susceptibility status of wild populations of Ae. albopictus to insecticides and a higher frequency of kdr mutations from dengue-monitored areas in Guizhou Province are reported in this paper. Outcomes of this study can serve as data support for further research and development of effective insecticidal interventions against Ae. albopictus populations in Guizhou Province.

PMID:38806622 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-024-63138-0