Safety and Immunogenicity of a DNA Vaccine With Subtype C gp120 Protein Adjuvanted With MF59 or AS01B: A Phase 1/2a HIV-1 Vaccine Trial

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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2024 Aug 1;96(4):350-360. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000003438. Epub 2024 Jun 21.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An effective vaccine is required to end the HIV pandemic. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a DNA (DNA-HIV-PT123) vaccine with low- or high-dose bivalent (TV1.C and 1086.C glycoprotein 120) subtype C envelope protein combinations, adjuvanted with MF59 or AS01B.

METHODS: HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN)108 was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 1/2a trial conducted in the United States and South Africa. HIV-negative adults were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 intervention arms or placebo to assess DNA prime with DNA/protein/adjuvant boosts, DNA/protein/adjuvant co-administration, and low-dose protein/adjuvant regimens. HVTN111 trial participants who received an identical regimen were also included. Outcomes included safety and immunogenicity 2 weeks and 6 months after final vaccination.

RESULTS: From June 2016 to July 2018, 400 participants were enrolled (N = 334 HVTN108, N = 66 HVTN111); 370 received vaccine and 30 received placebo. There were 48 grade 3 and 3 grade 4 reactogenicity events among 39/400 (9.8%) participants, and 32 mild/moderate-related adverse events in 23/400 (5.8%) participants. All intervention groups demonstrated high IgG response rates (>89%) and high magnitudes to HIV-1 Env gp120 and gp140 proteins; response rates for AS01B-adjuvanted groups approached 100%. V1V2 IgG magnitude, Fc-mediated functions, IgG3 Env response rates, and CD4+ T-cell response magnitudes and rates were higher in the AS01B-adjuvanted groups. The AS01B-adjuvanted low-dose protein elicited greater IgG responses than the higher protein dose.

CONCLUSIONS: The vaccine regimens were generally well tolerated. Co-administration of DNA with AS01B-adjuvanted bivalent Env gp120 elicited the strongest humoral responses; AS01B-adjuvanted regimens elicited stronger CD4+ T-cell responses, justifying further evaluation.ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT02915016, registered 26 September 2016.

PMID:38916429 | DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000003438