Saikosaponin D Inhibits Lung Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer Cells by Inducing Autophagy and Apoptosis

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Nutrients. 2024 Jun 12;16(12):1844. doi: 10.3390/nu16121844.

ABSTRACT

Saikosaponin D (SSD), derived from Bupleurum falcatum L., has various pharmacological properties, including immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic effects. Several studies have investigated the anti-tumor effects of SSD on cancer in multiple organs. However, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate the suppressive effects of SSD on CRC cell survival and metastasis. SSD reduced the survival and colony formation ability of CRC cells. SSD-induced autophagy and apoptosis in CRC cells were measured using flow cytometry. SSD treatment increased LC3B and p62 autophagic factor levels in CRC cells. Moreover, SSD-induced apoptosis occurred through the cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP, along with the downregulation of the Bcl-2 family. In the in vivo experiment, a reduction in the number of metastatic tumor nodules in the lungs was observed after the oral administration of SSD. Based on these results, SSD inhibits the metastasis of CRC cells to the lungs by inducing autophagy and apoptosis. In conclusion, SSD suppressed the proliferation and metastasis of CRC cells, suggesting its potential as a novel substance for the metastatic CRC treatment.

PMID:38931199 | DOI:10.3390/nu16121844