Shotgun metagenomic insights into secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters reveal taxonomic and functional profiles of microbiomes in natural farmland soil

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Sci Rep. 2024 Jul 2;14(1):15096. doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-63254-x.

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem that imposes a devastating effect on developing countries and requires immediate interventions. Initially, most of the antibiotic drugs were identified by culturing soil microbes. However, this method is prone to discovering the same antibiotics repeatedly. The present study employed a shotgun metagenomics approach to investigate the taxonomic diversity, functional potential, and biosynthetic capacity of microbiomes from two natural agricultural farmlands located in Bekeka and Welmera Choke Kebelle in Ethiopia for the first time. Analysis of the small subunit rRNA revealed bacterial domain accounting for 83.33% and 87.24% in the two selected natural farmlands. Additionally, the analysis showed the dominance of Proteobacteria representing 27.27% and 28.79% followed by Actinobacteria making up 12.73% and 13.64% of the phyla composition. Furthermore, the analysis revealed the presence of unassigned bacteria in the studied samples. The metagenome functional analysis showed 176,961 and 104, 636 number of protein-coding sequences (pCDS) from the two samples found a match with 172,655 and 102, 275 numbers of InterPro entries, respectively. The Genome ontology annotation suggests the presence of 5517 and 3293 pCDS assigned to the “biosynthesis process”. Numerous Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes modules (KEGG modules) involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoids and polyketides were identified. Furthermore, both known and novel Biosynthetic gene clusters, responsible for the production of secondary metabolites, such as polyketide synthases, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (Ripp), and Terpene, were discovered. Generally, from the results it can be concluded that the microbiomes in the selected sampling sites have a hidden functional potential for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Overall, this study can serve as a strong preliminary step in the long journey of bringing new antibiotics to the market.

PMID:38956049 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-024-63254-x