The Lipophilic Extract from Ginkgo biloba L. Leaves Promotes Glucose Uptake and Alleviates Palmitate-Induced Insulin Resistance in C2C12 Myotubes

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Molecules. 2024 Apr 3;29(7):1605. doi: 10.3390/molecules29071605.

ABSTRACT

Ginkgo biloba L. (ginkgo) is a widely used medicinal plant around the world. Its leaves, which have been used as a traditional Chinese medicine, are rich in various bioactive components. However, most of the research and applications of ginkgo leaves have focused on terpene trilactones and flavonol glycosides, thereby overlooking the other active components. In this study, a lipophilic extract (GL) was isolated from ginkgo leaves. This extract is abundant in lipids and lipid-like molecules. Then, its effect and potential mechanism on glucose uptake and insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes were investigated. The results showed that GL significantly enhanced the translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, which subsequently promoted glucose uptake. Meanwhile, it increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream targets. Both knockdown of AMPK with siRNA and inhibition with AMPK inhibitor compound C reversed these effects. Additionally, GL ameliorated palmitate-induced insulin resistance by enhancing insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, increasing the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB/AKT), and restoring the translocation of GLUT4 from the cytoplasm to the membrane. However, pretreatment with compound C abolished these beneficial effects of GL. In conclusion, GL enhances basal glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes and improves insulin sensitivity in palmitate-induced insulin resistant myotubes through the AMPK pathway.

PMID:38611884 | DOI:10.3390/molecules29071605