Thermal fixation technologies affect phenolic profile, ginkgolides, bilobalide, product quality, and ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba leaf tea

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J Food Sci. 2024 May 23. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.17126. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBLs) contain high phytoconstituents, but ginkgolic acids (GAs, the main toxic compound in GBLs) have limited its applications. Processing Ginkgo biloba dark tea (GBDT) using fixation technology could decrease the toxic compounds; retain flavonoids, ginkgolides, and bilobalide; and improve the product quality. For the first time, various thermal fixations (hot air fixation [HAF], iron pot fixation [IPF], and boiled water fixation [BWF]) followed by rolling, fermentation, and drying were applied to produce GBDT. A comprehensive analysis of the toxicants (GAs), main bioactive compounds (ginkgolides and bilobalide, flavonoids, antioxidants, and phenolic profiles), and product qualities (moisture content, reducing sugar [RS], free amino acids [FAAs], enzyme activity, color properties, antioxidant capacity, etc.) were evaluated. The results revealed that thermal fixations BWF and HAF significantly reduced the GA contents (41.1%-34.6%). Most terpene lactones showed significant differences in control, IPF, and HAF. The HAF had lower total flavonoid content (TFC) than BWF and IPF. The control group (unfixated) had the highest toxic components (GA), terpene trilactones, and TFC compared with various fixations. Adding different fixations to rolling, fermentation, and drying had various impacts on GBDT, and principal component analysis supported the results. Among four thermal fixations, HAF yielded the best results in RS, FAA, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activities, while IPF had the highest TFC. BWF had the lowest content for GA. In conclusion, HAF (6) was chosen as the best technique for producing GBDT since it preserved GBDT’s bioactive components while lowering its toxic components.

PMID:38783591 | DOI:10.1111/1750-3841.17126