Transcriptomic and free monoterpene analyses of aroma reveal that isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase inhibits monoterpene biosynthesis in grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

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BMC Plant Biol. 2024 Jun 25;24(1):595. doi: 10.1186/s12870-024-05306-y.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Monoterpenes are among the most important volatile aromatic compounds contributing to the flavor and aroma of grapes and wine. However, the molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis has not yet been fully elucidated.

RESULTS: In our study, transcriptomics and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to mine candidate genes and transcription factors involved in monoterpene biosynthesis between high-monoterpene and zero-monoterpene table grape cultivars. We found that monoterpene biosynthesis was positively correlated by the expression of five genes encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (VvDXSs), one encoding 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (VvHDR), three hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthases (VvHMGSs) and one mevalonate kinase (VvMVK), whereas the expression of one isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (VvIDI) and one 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (VvHMGR) negatively correlated monoterpene biosynthesis. Of these genes, VvIDI was selected to validate its function in monoterpene accumulation through a transient overexpression experiment, and was shown to inhibit the biosynthesis of grape linalool and α-terpineol. Meanwhile, we found that a 64-amino acid extension sequence at the N-terminus can guide the VvIDI protein to target the chloroplast.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study should help to guide future functional analysis of key genes as well as mining the potential regulatory mechanism of monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes and grape products.

PMID:38914931 | DOI:10.1186/s12870-024-05306-y