Triptolide decreases podocytes permeability by regulating TET2-mediated hydroxymethylation of ZO-1

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Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2024 May 31;249:10051. doi: 10.3389/ebm.2024.10051. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

Podocyte injury or dysfunction can lead to proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. Zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) is a tight junction protein which connects slit diaphragm (SD) proteins to the actin cytoskeleton. Previous studies have shown that the expression of ZO-1 is decreased in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Thus, elucidation of the regulation mechanism of ZO-1 has considerable clinical importance. Triptolide (TP) has been reported to exert a strong antiproteinuric effect by inhibiting podocyte epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inflammatory response. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We found that TP upregulates ZO-1 expression and increases the fluorescence intensity of ZO-1 in a puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced podocyte injury model. Permeablity assay showed TP decreases podocyte permeability in PAN-treated podocyte. TP also upregulates the DNA demethylase TET2. Our results showed that treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) and RG108 significantly increased ZO-1 expression in PAN-treated podocytes. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) and hydroxymethylated DNA immunoprecipitation (hMeDIP) results showed that TP regulates the methylation status of the ZO-1 promoter. Knockdown of TET2 decreased ZO-1 expression and increased methylation of its promoter, resulting in the increase of podocyte permeability. Altogether, these results indicate that TP upregulates the expression of ZO-1 and decreases podocyte permeability through TET2-mediated 5 mC demethylation. These findings suggest that TP may alleviate podocyte permeability through TET2-mediated hydroxymethylation of ZO-1.

PMID:38881848 | PMC:PMC11176508 | DOI:10.3389/ebm.2024.10051