Unleashed Treasures of Solanaceae: Mechanistic Insights into Phytochemicals with Therapeutic Potential for Combatting Human Diseases

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Plants (Basel). 2024 Mar 4;13(5):724. doi: 10.3390/plants13050724.

ABSTRACT

Plants that possess a diverse range of bioactive compounds are essential for maintaining human health and survival. The diversity of bioactive compounds with distinct therapeutic potential contributes to their role in health systems, in addition to their function as a source of nutrients. Studies on the genetic makeup and composition of bioactive compounds have revealed them to be rich in steroidal alkaloids, saponins, terpenes, flavonoids, and phenolics. The Solanaceae family, having a rich abundance of bioactive compounds with varying degrees of pharmacological activities, holds significant promise in the management of different diseases. Investigation into Solanum species has revealed them to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, nephroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ulcerogenic effects. Phytochemical analysis of isolated compounds such as diosgenin, solamargine, solanine, apigenin, and lupeol has shown them to be cytotoxic in different cancer cell lines, including liver cancer (HepG2, Hep3B, SMMC-772), lung cancer (A549, H441, H520), human breast cancer (HBL-100), and prostate cancer (PC3). Since analysis of their phytochemical constituents has shown them to have a notable effect on several signaling pathways, a great deal of attention has been paid to identifying the biological targets and cellular mechanisms involved therein. Considering the promising aspects of bioactive constituents of different Solanum members, the main emphasis was on finding and reporting notable cultivars, their phytochemical contents, and their pharmacological properties. This review offers mechanistic insights into the bioactive ingredients intended to treat different ailments with the least harmful effects for potential applications in the advancement of medical research.

PMID:38475570 | DOI:10.3390/plants13050724