UPLC-qTOF-MS phytochemical profile of Commiphora gileadensis leaf extract via integrated ultrasonic-microwave-assisted technique and synthesis of silver nanoparticles for enhanced antibacterial properties


Ultrason Sonochem. 2024 May 25;107:106923. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2024.106923. Online ahead of print.


The utilization of metallic nanoparticles in bio-nanofabrication holds significant potential in the field of applied research. The current study applied and compared integrated ultrasonic-microwave-assisted extraction (US/MICE), ultrasonic extraction (USE), microwave-assisted extraction (MICE), and maceration (MAE) to extract total phenolic content (TPC). In addition, the study examined the antioxidant activity of Commiphora gileadensis (Cg) leaf. The results demonstrated that the TPC of US/MICE exhibited the maximum value at 59.34 ± 0.007 mg GAE/g DM. Furthermore, at a concentration of 10 μg/mL, TPC displayed a significant scavenging effect on DPPH (56.69 %), with an EC50 (6.48 μg/mL). Comprehensive metabolite profiling of the extract using UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS was performed to identify active agents. A total of 64 chromatographic peaks were found, out of which 60 were annotated. The most prevalent classes of metabolites found were polyphenols (including flavonoids and lignans), organic compounds and their derivatives, amides and amines, terpenes, and fatty acid derivatives. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the aggregate size of the synthesized nanoparticles and the spherical shape of C. gileadensis-mediated silver nanoparticles (Cg-AgNPs). The nanoparticles had a particle size ranging from 7.7 to 42.9 nm. The Cg-AgNPs exhibited more inhibition zones against S. aureus and E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Cg-extract, AgNPs, and Cg-AgNPs were also tested. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using combined ultrasonic-microwave-assisted extraction to separate and extract chemicals from C. gileadensis on a large scale. These compounds have potential use in the pharmaceutical industry. Combining antibacterial and biocompatible properties in materials is vital for designing new materials for biomedical applications. Additionally, the results showed that the biocompatibility of the Ag-NPs using C. gileadensis extracts demonstrated outstanding antibacterial properties.

PMID:38815489 | DOI:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2024.106923