Will a lack of fabric durability be their downfall? Impact of textile durability on the efficacy of three types of dual-active-ingredient long-lasting insecticidal nets: a secondary analysis on malaria prevalence and incidence from a cluster-randomized trial in north-west Tanzania


Malar J. 2024 Jun 28;23(1):199. doi: 10.1186/s12936-024-05020-y.


BACKGROUND: The Dual-Active Ingredient long-lasting insecticidal nets (Dual-AI LLIN) have been developed to counteract the reduced efficacy of pyrethroid (PY)-only nets due to widespread pyrethroid insecticide resistance in malaria vector mosquitoes. They constitute half of the nets distributed in sub-Saharan Africa between 2022 and 2024. However, their effectiveness once they develop holes is unclear, particularly in pyrethroid-resistant settings. This study evaluates the textile integrity of three dual- AI LLINs compared to standard PY LLN, over 3 years of use in a community in Tanzania and the associated impact on malaria prevalence and incidence.

METHODS: A secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in North-western Tanzania was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of α-cypermethrin only; pyriproxyfen and α-cypermethrin (PPF-PY); chlorfenapyr and α-cypermethrin (chlorfenapyr-PY); and the synergist piperonyl butoxide and permethrin (PBO-PY) LLINs on malaria infection prevalence and case incidence. The association between the net textile condition and 1/malaria prevalence over 3 years of use between 2019 and 2022, and 2/malaria case incidence in a cohort of children over 2 years of follow-up was assessed between 2019 and 2021.

RESULTS: There was no significant association between damaged (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.71-1.37, p-value = 0.655) and too-torn (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77-1.47, p-value = 0.694) compared to intact nets on malaria prevalence for all net types. However, there were reduced rates of malaria case incidence in children sleeping under a net in good condition compared to too-torn nets (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.76 [95% CI 0.63-0.92], p = 0.005). Malaria incidence was also consistently lower in too-torn PBO-PY LLIN (IRR = 0.37 [95% CI 0.19-0.72], p = 0.003) and chlorfenapyr-PY LLIN (IRR = 0.45 [95% CI 0.33-0.97], p = 0.053) compared to an intact PY-only LLIN during the first year of follow up. In year 2, the incidence was only significantly lower in intact chlorfenapyr-PY LLIN (IRR = 0.49 [95% CI 0.29-0.81], p = 0.006) compared to intact PY LLIN.

CONCLUSION: The study confirmed that sleeping under a chlorfenapyr-PY LLIN or PBO-PY LLIN offered superior protection to pyrethroid-only nets even when torn. Preventing the development of holes is essential as they impact the level of protection offered against malaria infection.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, number (NCT03554616).

PMID:38943155 | DOI:10.1186/s12936-024-05020-y