Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties of oleuropein against Escherichia coli and fluconazole-resistant isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata

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BMC Microbiol. 2024 May 4;24(1):154. doi: 10.1186/s12866-024-03305-5.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Side effects associated with antimicrobial drugs, as well as their high cost, have prompted a search for low-cost herbal medicinal substances with fewer side effects. These substances can be used as supplements to medicine or to strengthen their effects. The current study investigated the effect of oleuropein on the inhibition of fungal and bacterial biofilm in-vitro and at the molecular level.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, antimicrobial properties were evaluated using microbroth dilution method. The effect of oleuropein on the formation and eradication of biofilm was assessed on 96-well flat bottom microtiter plates and their effects were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Its effect on key genes (Hwp1, Als3, Epa1, Epa6, LuxS, Pfs) involved in biofilm formation was investigated using the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method.

RESULTS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal/bactericidal concentration (MFC/MBC) for oleuropein were found to be 65 mg/ml and 130 mg/ml, respectively. Oleuropein significantly inhibited biofilm formation at MIC/2 (32.5 mg/ml), MIC/4 (16.25 mg/ml), MIC/8 (8.125 mg/ml) and MIC/16 (4.062 mg/ml) (p < 0.0001). The anti-biofilm effect of oleuropein was confirmed by SEM. RT-qPCR indicated significant down regulation of expression genes involved in biofilm formation in Candida albicans (Hwp1, Als3) and Candida glabrata (Epa1, Epa6) as well as Escherichia coli (LuxS, Pfs) genes after culture with a MIC/2 of oleuropein (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that oleuropein has antifungal and antibacterial properties that enable it to inhibit or destroy the formation of fungal and bacterial biofilm.

PMID:38704559 | DOI:10.1186/s12866-024-03305-5