Astaxanthin, Haematococcus pluvialis and Haematococcus pluvialis Residue Alleviate Liver Injury in D-Galactose-induced Aging Mice through Gut-liver Axis


J Oleo Sci. 2024;73(5):729-742. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess24003.


Astaxanthin is a keto-based carotenoid mainly obtained from marine organisms, like Haematococcus pluvialis (H. pluvialis). Previous studies indicated the protective effects of Astaxanthin and H. pluvialis on aging related oxidative injury in liver, while the potential mechanisms are largely unknown. In addition, H. pluvialis residue is a by-product after astaxanthin extraction, which is rarely studied and utilized. The present study aimed to compare the effects of astaxanthin, H. pluvialis and H. pluvialis residue on the oxidant injury of liver in D-galactose-induced aging mice and explore the potential mechanisms through gut-liver axis. The results showed that all the three supplements prevented D-galactose-induced tissue injury, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in liver and improved liver function. Gut microbiota analysis indicated that astaxanthin notably increased fecal levels of Bacteroidetes, unclassified_f__ Lachnospiraceae, norank_f__Lachnospiraceae, norank_f__norank_o__Clostridia_UCG-014, Prevotellaceae_ UCG-001, unclassified_f__Prevotellaceae in D-galactose-fed mice (p < 0.05). Compared to aging mice, H. pluvialis group had higher fecal levels of norank_f__Lachnospiraceae and Lachnospiraceae_UCG-006 (p < 0.05). H. pluvialis residue group displayed higher relative levels of Bacteroidetes, Streptococcus, and Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the production of fecal microbial metabolites, like SCFAs and LPS was also differently restored by the three supplements. Overall, our results suggest astaxanthin, H. pluvialis and H. pluvialis residue could prevent aging related hepatic injury through gutliver axis and provide evidence for exploiting of H. pluvialis residue as a functional ingredient for the treatment of liver diseases. Future studies are needed to further clarify the effect and mechanism of dominant components of H. pluvialis residue on liver injury, which is expected to provide a reference for the high-value utilization of H. pluvialis resources.

PMID:38692895 | DOI:10.5650/jos.ess24003