Biological differences of three paclitaxel- and sirolimus-coated balloons on coronary lesions in a rabbit model

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EuroIntervention. 2024 Mar 18;20(6):e389-e398. doi: 10.4244/EIJ-D-23-00425.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) are important treatment options for coronary artery disease; however, randomised controlled trials comparing various DCB technologies are sparse, and further investigations are needed.

AIMS: This preclinical study aimed to histologically and biologically compare the drug effects and safety of a low-dose paclitaxel-coated DCB (PCB; AGENT), a regular-dose PCB (SeQuent Please NEO) and a sirolimus-coated DCB (SCB; MagicTouch).

METHODS: The DCBs were inflated in the healthy iliac arteries of 18 rabbits, which were euthanised after 28 days. The treated iliac arteries and distal skeletal muscles were histopathologically evaluated, and drug concentrations were measured.

RESULTS: In the histopathological evaluation, the medial smooth muscle cell loss score regarding depth, an indicator of drug efficacy, was significantly higher with AGENT and SeQuent Please NEO than with MagicTouch (4.0 [3.6-4.0] vs 3.7 [3.7-4.0] vs 2.2 [2.0-2.4]), with significant differences in comparisons between AGENT and MagicTouch (p<0.01) and between SeQuent Please NEO and MagicTouch (p<0.01). AGENT and SeQuent Please NEO showed comparable drug concentrations in the treated artery (p=0.61). In contrast, the drug concentrations in distal skeletal muscles were the highest for MagicTouch, followed by SeQuent Please NEO and AGENT (28.07 [13.19-52.46] ng/mg vs 0.66 [0.22-3.76] ng/mg vs 0.25 [0.04-3.23] ng/mg, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that PCBs might have higher efficacy and lower drug concentrations in distal skeletal muscles than the MagicTouch SCB. The efficacy of the AGENT low-dose PCB and the SeQuent Please NEO regular-dose PCB was comparable.

PMID:38506736 | DOI:10.4244/EIJ-D-23-00425